Endocrine disrupting chemicals in the pathogenesis of hypospadias; developmental and toxicological perspectives.
Deidre M Mattiske, Andrew J Pask
Curr Res Toxicol | Published : 2021
Hypospadias is a defect in penile urethral closure that occurs in approximately 1/150 live male births in developed nations, making it one of the most common congenital abnormalities worldwide. Alarmingly, the frequency of hypospadias has increased rapidly over recent decades and is continuing to rise. Recent research reviewed herein suggests that the rise in hypospadias rates can be directly linked to our increasing exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), especially those that affect estrogen and androgen signalling. Understanding the mechanistic links between endocrine disruptors and hypospadias requires toxicologists and developmental biologists to define exposures and biologic..View full abstract