Journal article

Breast Cancer Cells and PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade Upregulate the Expression of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3 and LAG-3 Immune Checkpoints in CD4( ) T Cells

Reem Saleh, Salman M Toor, Sarah Khalaf, Eyad Elkord

Vaccines | MDPI | Published : 2019

Abstract

: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype, and it exhibits resistance to common breast cancer therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, have been approved to treat various cancers. However, the therapeutic efficacy of targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis in breast cancer is under clinical investigation. In addition, the mechanisms of action of drugs targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of human TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, and the non-TNBC cell line, MCF-7, on the expression of immune checkpoints (ICs) on CD4+ T cell ..

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Grants

Awarded by Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Qatar Foundation


Funding Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a start-up grant [VR04] for Eyad Elkord from Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Qatar Foundation.