Journal article

A Meta-Analysis of Ten Learning Techniques

Gregory M Donoghue, John AC Hattie

FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION | FRONTIERS MEDIA SA | Published : 2021

Abstract

This article outlines a meta-analysis of the 10 learning techniques identified in Dunlosky et al. (2013a), and is based on 242 studies, 1,619 effects, 169,179 unique participants, with an overall mean of 0.56. The most effective techniques are Distributed Practice and Practice Testing and the least effective (but still with relatively high effects) are Underlining and Summarization. A major limitation was that the majority of studies in the meta-analysis were based on surface or factual outcomes, and there is caution needed when applying these findings to deeper and more relational outcomes. Other important moderators included the presence of feedback or not, near or far transfer, and the ef..

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