A Low-Cost Water Depth and Electrical Conductivity Sensor for Detecting Inputs into Urban Stormwater Networks.
Baiqian Shi, Stephen Catsamas, Peter Kolotelo, Miao Wang, Anna Lintern, Dusan Jovanovic, Peter M Bach, Ana Deletic, David T McCarthy
Sensors (Basel) | Published : 2021
High-resolution data collection of the urban stormwater network is crucial for future asset management and illicit discharge detection, but often too expensive as sensors and ongoing frequent maintenance works are not affordable. We developed an integrated water depth, electrical conductivity (EC), and temperature sensor that is inexpensive (USD 25), low power, and easily implemented in urban drainage networks. Our low-cost sensor reliably measures the rate-of-change of water level without any re-calibration by comparing with industry-standard instruments such as HACH and HORIBA's probes. To overcome the observed drift of level sensors, we developed an automated re-calibration approach, whic..View full abstract