Journal article

Pulmonary Manifestations of Gastrointestinal, Pancreatic, and Liver Diseases in Children.

Emily R Le Fevre, Kathleen H McGrath, Dominic A Fitzgerald

Pediatric Clinics of North America | Published : 2021


Pulmonary manifestations of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are often subtle, and underlying disease may precede overt symptoms. A high index of suspicion and a low threshold for consultation with a pediatric pulmonologist is warranted in common GI conditions. This article outlines the pulmonary manifestations of different GI, pancreatic, and liver diseases in children, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and complications of chronic liver disease (hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension).