Journal article

Antarctic skin temperature warming related to enhanced downward longwave radiation associated with increased atmospheric advection of moisture and temperature

Kazutoshi Sato, Ian Simmonds



We investigate linear trends in Antarctic skin temperatures (temperatures from about the top millimeter of the surface) over the four seasons using ERA5 ensemble mean reanalysis data. During 1950–2020, statistically significant warming occurred over East and West Antarctica in spring, autumn and winter, and over the Antarctic Peninsula in autumn and winter. A surface energy budget analysis revealed that increases in downward longwave radiation related to increases in air temperature and total column integrated cloud had a key role in Antarctic surface warming. There were negative sea level pressure trends around the periphery of Antarctica throughout the year, and the associated circulation ..

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Awarded by JSPS Overseas Research Fellowship (JSPS KAKENHI)

Awarded by Australian Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a JSPS Overseas Research Fellowship (JSPS KAKENHI 20H04963, 19K14802) awarded to K.S. I.S. was supported by the Australian Research Council (Grant No. DP160101997). We would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for very helpful comments. We thank Sev Kender, PhD, from Edanz Group ( for correcting a draft of this manuscript.