Journal article

Daily variation of macronutrient concentrations in mature human milk over 3 weeks

Gabriela E Leghi, Ching T Lai, Ardra Narayanan, Merryn J Netting, Michael Dymock, Alethea Rea, Mary E Wlodek, Donna T Geddes, Beverly S Muhlhausler



Human milk (HM) composition is known to be highly variable, both between individuals and across the duration of lactation. It is less clear, however, to what extent fat, lactose and protein concentrations in HM change daily over shorter time periods in mature HM, and no studies have evaluated this to date. The aim of this study was to systematically assess and compare HM macronutrient concentrations in samples collected at different times of day, from left and right breasts and daily across a 3-week period in the same woman. Fifteen lactating women (1.6-4.9 months postpartum) collected daily pre-feed HM samples from both breasts each morning for 21 consecutive days and completed intensive sa..

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Funding Acknowledgements

G.L. was supported by a FOODplus Early Life Nutrition Scholarship, The University of Adelaide. D.G. is funded by an unrestricted research grant from Medela AG. B.M. received a Career Development Award from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC). Funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, data interpretation or writing of the manuscript.