Journal article

Are the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 Suitable for Use in India? A Psychometric Analysis

Jeroen De Man, Pilvikki Absetz, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Allissa Desloge, Tilahun Haregu, Brian Oldenburg, Leslie CM Johnson, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan, Emily D Williams

FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY | FRONTIERS MEDIA SA | Published : 2021

Abstract

Background: Cross-cultural evidence on the factorial structure and invariance of the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7 is lacking for South Asia. Recommendations on the use of unit-weighted scores of these scales (the sum of items' scores) are not well-founded. This study aims to address these contextual and methodological gaps using data from a rural Indian population. Methods: The study surveyed 1,209 participants of the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program aged 30-60 years (n at risk of diabetes = 1,007 and n with diabetes = 202). 1,007 participants were surveyed over 2 years using the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7. Bifactor-(S - 1) modeling and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis were used. Results: Factor an..

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Grants

Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia


Awarded by Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University of Antwerp


Funding Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia (Grant ID 1005324); the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University of Antwerp (Grant ID 37025). The contents of this manuscript are solely the of the authors and do not reflect the views of the funders. The funders had no involvement in the study design; collection, analysis and interpretation of data; writing of the report; and the decision to submit the article for publication.