Infection studies with two highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (Vietnamese and Indonesian) in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), with particular reference to clinical disease, tissue tropism and viral shedding
John Bingham, Diane J Green, Sue Lowther, Jessica Klippel, Simon Burggraaf, Danielle E Anderson, Hendra Wibawa, Manh Hoa Dong, Thanh Long Ngo, Phong Vu Pham, Deborah J Middleton, Peter W Daniels
Avian Pathology | TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD | Published : 2009
Pekin ducks were infected by the mucosal route (oral, nasal, ocular) with one of two strains of Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus: A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/453/2004 and A/duck/Indramayu/BBVW/109/2006 (from Indonesia). Ducks were killed humanely on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after challenge, or whenever morbidity was severe enough to justify euthanasia. Morbidity was recorded by observation of clinical signs and cloacal temperatures; the disease was characterized by histopathology; tissue tropism was studied by immunohistochemistry and virus titration on tissue samples; and viral shedding patterns were determined by virus isolation and titration of oral and cloacal swabs...View full abstract
Awarded by Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
The authors wish to thank Paul Selleck for initial antigenic characterization of the viruses used in this study, and Kelly Davies and Vicky Stevens for their haemagglutination gene sequencing. John Muschialli and Don Carlson assisted with the animal trials. The authors are indebted to Dr Alfonso Clavijo ( Vesicular Diseases Unit, National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Winnipeg, Canada) for donation of clones of influenza nucleoprotein for the production of rabbit polyclonal antisera. Mark Ford and Wojtek Michalski provided valuable comments on the manuscript and Frank Filippi assisted with compilation of the figures. The study was jointly funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research grant number AH/2004/040 and CSIRO.