Journal article

The cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, CRS and MAS compared. Can one sized treatment fit all?

Gerwyn Morris, Chiara C Bortolasci, Basant K Puri, Wolfgang Marx, Adrienne O'Neil, Eugene Athan, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Lisa Olive, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Maes

CYTOKINE | ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD | Published : 2021

Abstract

An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB..

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University of Melbourne Researchers