Journal article

Determinants of resistance to VEGF-TKI and immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Revati Sharma, Elif Kadife, Mark Myers, George Kannourakis, Prashanth Prithviraj, Nuzhat Ahmed

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH | BMC | Published : 2021

Abstract

Vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGF-TKIs) have been the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Despite its early promising results in decreasing or delaying the progression of RCC in patients, VEGF-TKIs have provided modest benefits in terms of disease-free progression, as 70% of the patients who initially respond to the treatment later develop drug resistance, with 30% of the patients innately resistant to VEGF-TKIs. In the past decade, several molecular and genetic mechanisms of VEGF-TKI resistance have been reported. One of the mechanisms of VEGF-TKIs is inhibition of the classical angiogenesis pathway. However, recent ..

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