Journal article

Evolution of tissue and developmental specificity of transcription start sites in Bos taurus indicus

Mehrnush Forutan, Elizabeth Ross, Amanda J Chamberlain, Loan Nguyen, Brett Mason, Stephen Moore, Josie B Garner, Ruidong Xiang, Ben J Hayes



To further the understanding of the evolution of transcriptional regulation, we profiled genome-wide transcriptional start sites (TSSs) in two sub-species, Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus, that diverged approximately 500,000 years ago. Evolutionary and developmental-stage differences in TSSs were detected across the sub-species, including translocation of dominant TSS and changes in TSS distribution. The 16% of all SNPs located in significant differentially used TSS clusters across sub-species had significant shifts in allele frequency (472 SNPs), indicating they may have been subject to selection. In spleen and muscle, a higher relative TSS expression was observed in Bos indicus th..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by Meat and Livestock Australia

Funding Acknowledgements

We acknowledge financial contributions from Meat and Livestock Australia (Project P.PSH.0868-"Characterisation of the Brahman Genome") for the generation of the Bos taurus indicus CAGE-seq data. We would also like to acknowledge financial contributions from DairyBio (a joint venture project between Agriculture Victoria and Dairy Australia) and Research Initiative Fund of the Faculty of Veterinary-& Agriculture Sciences of The University of Melbourne for the generation of the Bos taurus taurus CAGE-seq data. We are thankful to Dr. Brian Burns for helping source the Bos taurus indicus tissues, and Dr. Bronwyn Venus for collecting Bos taurus indicus samples. Thank you to Elise Kho for extracting some the Bos taurus indicus RNA. We are also thankful to Rodger and Lorena Jefferis of Elrose Brahman Stud who donated Neomi the Brahman cow used in this study to science.