Coformulation with Tattoo Ink for Immunological Assessment of Vaccine Immunogenicity in the Draining Lymph Node.
Isaac M Barber-Axthelm, Hannah G Kelly, Robyn Esterbauer, Kathleen M Wragg, Anne M Gibbon, Wen Shi Lee, Adam K Wheatley, Stephen J Kent, Hyon-Xhi Tan, Jennifer A Juno
J Immunol | Published : 2021
Characterization of germinal center B and T cell responses yields critical insights into vaccine immunogenicity. Nonhuman primates are a key preclinical animal model for human vaccine development, allowing both lymph node (LN) and circulating immune responses to be longitudinally sampled for correlates of vaccine efficacy. However, patterns of vaccine Ag drainage via the lymphatics after i.m. immunization can be stochastic, driving uneven deposition between lymphoid sites and between individual LN within larger clusters. To improve the accurate isolation of Ag-exposed LN during biopsies and necropsies, we developed and validated a method for coformulating candidate vaccines with tattoo ink i..View full abstract