Journal article

Design prototyping methods: state of the art in strategies, techniques, and guidelines

Bradley Camburn, Vimal Viswanathan, Julie Linsey, David Anderson, Daniel Jensen, Richard Crawford, Kevin Otto, Kristin Wood



Prototyping is interwoven with nearly all product, service, and systems development efforts. A prototype is a pre-production representation of some aspect of a concept or final design. Prototyping often predetermines a large portion of resource deployment in development and influences design project success. This review surveys literature sources in engineering, management, design science, and architecture. The study is focused around design prototyping for early stage design. Insights are synthesized from critical review of the literature: key objectives of prototyping, critical review of major techniques, relationships between techniques, and a strategy matrix to connect objectives to tech..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by United States Air Force Academy

Funding Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) and the SUTD-MIT International Design Centre (IDC, This material is also based in part on research sponsored by the United States Air Force Academy under agreement number FA7000-12-2-2005. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the offcial policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the United States Air Force Academy or the US government. The authors would also like to thank Larry Sass of the MIT Architecture Department for aiding in survey of virtual prototyping and digital design. The authors would like to thank Adam Gilmour and Gilmour Space Technologies for providing documentation of many of the exemplar design prototypes.