Journal article

Governing Nonconformity: Gender Presentation, Public Space, and the City in New Order Indonesia

B Hegarty

Journal of Asian Studies | Cambridge University Press (CUP) | Published : 2021


The regulation of public space is generative of new approaches to gender nonconformity. In 1968 in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, a group of people who identified as wadam - a new term made by combining parts of Indonesian words denoting "femininity"and "masculinity"- made a claim to the city's governor that they had the right to appear in public space. This article illustrates the paradoxical achievement of obtaining recognition on terms constituted through public nuisance regulations governing access to and movement through space. The origins and diffuse effects of recognition achieved by those who identified as wadam and, a decade later, waria facilitated the partial recognition of a ..

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