The dark side of insulin: A primary autoantigen and instrument of self-destruction in type 1 diabetes.
Leonard C Harrison
Mol Metab | Published : 2021
BACKGROUND: Since its discovery 100 years ago, insulin, as the 'cure' for type 1 diabetes, has rescued the lives of countless individuals. As the century unfolded and the autoimmune nature of type 1 diabetes was recognised, a darker side of insulin emerged. Autoimmunity to insulin was found to be an early marker of risk for type 1 diabetes in young children. In humans, it remains unclear if autoimmunity to insulin is primarily due to a defect in the beta cell itself or to dysregulated immune activation. Conversely, it may be secondary to beta-cell damage from an environmental agent (e.g., virus). Nevertheless, direct, interventional studies in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse models of type 1 ..View full abstract