Journal article

The Renin-Angiotensin System in the Tumor Microenvironment of Glioblastoma

Michael O'Rawe, Ethan J Kilmister, Theo Mantamadiotis, Andrew H Kaye, Swee T Tan, Agadha C Wickremesekera

CANCERS | MDPI | Published : 2021

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GB) is an aggressive primary brain tumor. Despite intensive research over the past 50 years, little advance has been made to improve the poor outcome, with an overall median survival of 14.6 months following standard treatment. Local recurrence is inevitable due to the quiescent cancer stem cells (CSCs) in GB that co-express stemness-associated markers and components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The dynamic and heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a fundamental role in tumor development, progression, invasiveness, and therapy resistance. There is increasing evidence showing the critical role of the RAS in the TME influencing CSCs via its upstream and downs..

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