Journal article

Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

Kieren J Mitchell, Sarah C Bray, Pere Bover, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Blaine W Schubert, Francisco Prevosti, Alfredo Prieto, Fabiana Martin, Jeremy J Austin, Alan Cooper

BIOLOGY LETTERS | ROYAL SOC | Published : 2016

Abstract

The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North..

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Grants

Awarded by Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship (MEDI-TADNA)


Awarded by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas


Awarded by Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica


Funding Acknowledgements

The authors were supported by the Australian Research Council, Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship (MEDI-TADNA, PIOF-GA-2011-300854, FP7-PEOPLE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (PIP 2011-164) and Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica (PICT 2011-309).