Journal article

Multiple introductions of multidrug-resistant typhoid associated with acute infection and asymptomatic carriage, Kenya

Samuel Kariuki, Zoe A Dyson, Cecilia Mbae, Ronald Ngetich, Susan M Kavai, Celestine Wairimu, Stephen Anyona, Naomi Gitau, Robert Sanaya Onsare, Beatrice Ongandi, Sebastian Duchene, Mohamed Ali, John David Clemens, Kathryn E Holt, Gordon Dougan

ELIFE | eLIFE SCIENCES PUBL LTD | Published : 2021


Background: Understanding the dynamics of infection and carriage of typhoid in endemic settings is critical to finding solutions to prevention and control. Methods: In a 3-year case-control study, we investigated typhoid among children aged <16 years (4670 febrile cases and 8549 age matched controls) living in an informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya. Results: 148 S. Typhi isolates from cases and 95 from controls (stool culture) were identified; a carriage frequency of 1 %. Whole-genome sequencing showed 97% of cases and 88% of controls were genotype 4.3.1 (Haplotype 58), with the majority of each (76% and 88%) being multidrug-resistant strains in three sublineages of the H58 genotype (East Af..

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