Journal article

Spatiotemporal map of key signaling factors during early penis development

Gerard A Tarulli, Samuel M Cripps, Andrew J Pask, Marilyn B Renfree



The formation of the external genitalia is a highly complex developmental process, considering it involves a wide range of cell types and results in sexually dimorphic outcomes. Development is controlled by several secreted signalling factors produced in complex spatiotemporal patterns, including the hedgehog (HH), bone morphogenic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and WNT signalling families. Many of these factors act on or are influenced by the actions of the androgen receptor (AR) that is critical to masculinisation. This complexity of expression makes it difficult to conceptualise patterns of potential importance. Mapping expression during key stages of development is needed ..

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