Journal article

Research Note: School Reopenings During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Implications for Gender and Racial Equity.

Liana Christin Landivar, Leah Ruppanner, Lloyd Rouse, William J Scarborough, Caitlyn Collins

Demography | Published : 2021


In the fall of 2020, school districts across the country reopened under a variety of instructional modes. Some districts returned to in-person instruction and some operated remotely. Others reopened under hybrid models, wherein students alternated times, days, or weeks of in-person instruction. To capture this variation, we developed the Elementary School Operating Status (ESOS) database. ESOS provides data on elementary school districts' primary operating status in the first grading period of the 2020-2021 school year, covering 24 million students in more than 9,000 school districts in all states. In this research note, we introduce these data and offer two analytical examples. We show that..

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