Journal article

Using bivariate models to understand between- and within-cluster regression coefficients, with application to twin data

Lyle C Gurrin, John B Carlin, Jonathan AC Sterne, Gillian S Dite, John L Hopper



In the regression analysis of clustered data it is important to allow for the possibility of distinct between- and within-cluster exposure effects on the outcome measure, represented, respectively, by regression coefficients for the cluster mean and the deviation of the individual-level exposure value from this mean. In twin data, the within-pair regression effect represents association conditional on exposures shared within pairs, including any common genetic or environmental influences on the outcome measure. It has therefore been proposed that a comparison of the within-pair regression effects between monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twins can be used to examine whether the association b..

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