Journal article

Carbohydrate residues downstream of the terminal Gal alpha(1,3) Gal epitope modulate the specificity of xenoreactive antibodies

Julie Milland, Elizabeth Yuriev, Pei-Xiang Xing, Ian FC McKenzie, Paul A Ramsland, Mauro S Sandrin

Immunology and Cell Biology | NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP | Published : 2007

Abstract

Carbohydrates are involved in many immunological responses including the rejection of incompatible blood, tissues and organs. Carbohydrate antigens with Galalpha(1,3)Gal epitopes are recognized by natural antibodies in humans and pose a major barrier for pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Genetically modified pigs have been established that have no functional alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT), which transfers alphaGal to N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) type oligosaccharides. However, a low level of Galalpha(1,3)Gal is still expressed in alpha1,3GT knockout animals in the form of a lipid, isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3), which is produced by iGb3 synthase on lactose (Lac) type core st..

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