Journal article

Parenting style as a moderator of the effect of temperament on adolescent externalising and internalising behaviour problems

P Letcher, J Toumbourou, A Sanson, M Prior, D Smart, F Oberklaid

Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist | Published : 2004


The direct and interactive effects of temperament and parenting were examined in the prediction of early adolescent externalising behaviour problems (conduct disorder and hyperactivity), internalising problems (depression and anxiety), and substance use, using data on 1,402 13- and 14-year-olds. Significant direct effects were found for four temperament factors (negative reactivity, task persistence, activity, and approach), and four parenting factors (warmth, power assertion, physical punishment, and monitoring). For those high in persistence, low in negative reactivity, or low in activity, problem outcomes were generally very rare, regardless of parenting. Prevalence of behaviour problems ..

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