Testicular descent, cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia: the Melbourne perspective.
Hideki Tomiyama, Yasunari Sasaki, Jenny Huynh, Eric Yong, Alvin Ting, John M Hutson
J Pediatr Urol | Published : 2005
Cryptorchidism is the commonest congenital genitourinary anomaly in males and results when the testis does not descend into its normal intrascrotal position during development. In full-term infants, the incidence is approximately 3% at birth. Cryptorchidism results in several abnormalities, including attenuated spermatogenesis, infertility and a greater risk of malignancy. The normal mechanism of testicular descent appears to be multi-staged, with various anatomical factors and hormonal influences, but the exact process is still unclear. In this article we review the current theories of normal testicular descent, with a focus on the hormones and anatomical factors, and current treatments for..View full abstract