Role of stressful life events and menopausal stage in wellbeing and health.
Jeanne Leventhal Alexander, Lorraine Dennerstein, Nancy Fugate Woods, Bruce S McEwen, Uriel Halbreich, Krista Kotz, Gregg Richardson
Expert Rev Neurother | Published : 2007
Stress plays an essential role in the development, continuation and exacerbation of mood problems throughout a woman's life. It exacerbates somatic symptoms of menopause, increasing the risk of recurrence of mood disorders, as well as of a mood disorder de novo throughout the lifespan and specifically in the menopausal transition. Chronic stress affects the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the proinflammatory cytokines and cardiovascular risk. The current evidence for the potential interactions between acute stress, chronic stress, childhood stress and victimization, and individual susceptibility to the development of depression and/or anxiety in response to ..View full abstract