Journal article

Long-term effects of smoking on retinal microvascular caliber

Annette Kifley, Gerald Liew, Jie Jin Wang, Shweta Kaushik, Wayne Smith, Tien Y Wong, Paul Mitchell

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY | OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC | Published : 2007

Abstract

Although cigarette smoking is a major cardiovascular risk factor, its microcirculatory effects are not well understood. The authors investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between smoking and retinal microvascular caliber in an older Australian population. Retinal vessel calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs at baseline (1992-1994; n = 3,006) and at 5-year follow-up examinations (1997-1999; n = 1,850) in the population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study. Smoking status and quantity and pack-years of smoking were defined from standardized questionnaires administered at both examinations. After adjustment for other factors, current and past smoking were associat..

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