Journal article

A 5600-yr history of changing vegetation, sea levels and human impacts from the Black Sea coast of Georgia

Simon E Connor, Ian Thomas, Eliso V Kvavadze

The Holocene | SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD | Published : 2007


Mid-late Holocene pollen evidence from the Ispani-II Sphagnum bog in lowland Western Georgia shows that 4500 years ago Castanea (chestnut)-dominated woods rapidly declined to be replaced by alder swamps and, later, during the first millennium be, by open, marshy landscapes in which fire played a prominent part. Around 1900 years ago, Sphagnum blanket bog encroached on the marshes and dense Fagus-Carpinus (beech-hornbeam) forest enveloped the surrounding land. This vegetation remained until the mid-twentieth century, when forests were clear-felled and marshes were drained for large-scale, mechanized agriculture. Previous studies have emphasized climate's governing role in setting the course o..

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