Frequency Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids
Suzanne P Jarvis, John E Sader, Takeshi Fukuma
APPLIED SCANNING PROBE METHODS VIII: SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUES | NanoScience and Technology | SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN | Published : 2008
Frequencymodulation atomic force microscopy is a sensitive and quantitative dynamic technique, which utilizes the change in resonance frequency of a cantilever to detect variations in the interaction force between the cantilever tip and the sample of interest. Although it has been used extensively in ultrahigh vacuum, it is rarely used in liquids. Here we explore the application of the technique in the liquid environment, covering various experimental implementations of the technique and its theoretical foundations. In addition, we describe a number of applications that demonstrate the potential of the technique in liquids and highlight future prospects.