Journal article

Coagulation and the xenograft endothelium

Peter J Cowan



Acute humoral rejection remains the major barrier to long-term pig-to-primate xenograft survival, and microvascular thrombosis is a critical element of the rejection process. It appears that persistent endothelial cell activation and injury, by even low levels of anti-graft antibodies, eventually overwhelm the cellular anticoagulant defences and promote the development of thrombotic microangiopathy. Porcine endothelium may be particularly vulnerable because of cross-species molecular incompatibilities affecting the function of thrombomodulin and possibly TFPI. Recent data from small animal models suggest that transgenic overexpression of anti-thrombotic molecules on xenograft endothelium is ..

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