Journal article

The lymphatic anatomy of the breast and its implications for sentinel lymph node biopsy: A Human Cadaver Study

Hiroo Suami, Wei-Ren Pan, G Bruce Mann, G Ian Taylor

ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY | SPRINGER | Published : 2008

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the lymphatic system of the breast is derived mainly from the work of the anatomist Sappey in the 1850s, with many observations made during the development and introduction of breast lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy contributing to our knowledge. METHODS: Twenty four breasts in 14 fresh human cadavers (5 male, 9 female) were studied. Lymph vessels were identified with hydrogen peroxide and injected with a lead oxide mixture and radiographed. The specimens were cross sectioned and radiographed to provide three dimensional images. Lymph (collecting) vessels were traced from the periphery to the first-tier lymph node. RESULTS: Lymph collecting vess..

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