Journal article

The Ambiguities of 'Environmental' Conflict: Insights from the Tolukuma Gold Mine, Papua New Guinea


Society and Natural Resources | Routledge Taylor & Francis Group | Published : 2007


In this article we propose that environmental conflicts in developing countries are caused not so much by environmental degradation—as suggested in much of the literature on environmental security—but by the unequal distribution of outcomes arising from environmental degradation and the processes that cause it. We then seek to inform this theoretical proposition through a review of research on conflicts surrounding mining in Papua New Guinea (PNG), and through a case study of socioenvironmental impacts of, and local responses to, the Tolukuma Gold Mine (TGM) in PNG. We show that the unequal distribution of environmental impacts and compensation payments caused by the mine has created conflic..

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