Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder: population-based study
Julie A Pasco, Lana J Williams, Felice N Jacka, Felicity Ng, Margaret J Henry, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Mark A Kotowicz, Michael Berk
BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY | CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS | Published : 2008
BACKGROUND: Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among people with psychiatric illness. AIMS: To investigate smoking as a risk factor for major depressive disorder. METHOD: A population-based sample of women was studied using case-control and retrospective cohort study designs. Exposure to smoking was self-reported, and major depressive disorder diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP). RESULTS: Among 165 people with major depressive disorder and 806 controls, smoking was associated with increased odds for major depressive disorder (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.07). Compared with non-smokers, odds for major depressive disorder more th..View full abstract
The study was funded by the National Health and medical Research Council of Australia, supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Eli Lilly. Postgraduate scholarships were provided by the University of Melbourne, Faculty of medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences and the Australian Rotary Health Research Fund. We thank Sharon Brennan for obtaining the socio-economic data for the study.