Book Chapter

THE HUMAN INSULIN SUPERFAMILY OF POLYPEPTIDE HORMONES

Fazel Shabanpoor, Frances Separovic, John D Wade

VITAMINS AND HORMONES INSULIN AND IGFS | Vitamins and Hormones: Advances in Research and Applications | ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC | Published : 2009

Abstract

The identification in the 1950s of insulin, an essential carbohydrate regulatory hormone, as consisting of not one but two peptide chains linked by three disulfide bonds in a distinctive pattern was a milestone in peptide chemistry. When it was later found that relaxin also possessed a similar overall structure, the term 'insulin superfamily' was coined. Use of methods of conventional protein chemistry followed by recombinant DNA and more recently bioinformatics has led to the recognition that insulin is the precursor to a large protein superfamily that extends beyond the human. Insulin-like peptides are found not only in vertebrates such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians but also in t..

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