Journal article

Simple indices of global climate variability and change - Part II: attribution of climate change during the twentieth century

K Braganza, DJ Karoly, AC Hirst, P Stott, RJ Stouffer, SFB Tett



Five simple indices of surface temperature are used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic and natural (solar irradiance and volcanic aerosol) forcing on observed climate change during the twentieth century. These indices are based on spatial fingerprints of climate change and include the global-mean surface temperature, the land-ocean temperature contrast, the magnitude of the annual cycle in surface temperature over land, the Northern Hemisphere meridional temperature gradient and the hemispheric temperature contrast. The indices contain information independent of variations in global-mean temperature for unforced climate variations and hence, considered collectively, they are more ..

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University of Melbourne Researchers