Musculoskeletal model of the upper limb based on the visible human male dataset.
BA Garner, MG Pandy
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin | Published : 2001
A mathematical model of the human upper limb was developed based on high-resolution medical images of the muscles and bones obtained from the Visible Human Male (VHM) project. Three-dimensional surfaces of the muscles and bones were reconstructed from Computed Tomography (CT) images and Color Cryosection images obtained from the VHM cadaver. Thirteen degrees of freedom were used to describe the orientations of seven bones in the model: clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpal bones, and hand. All of the major articulations from the shoulder girdle down to the wrist were included in the model. The model was actuated by 42 muscle bundles, which represented the actions of 26 muscle grou..View full abstract