Journal article

Analysis of the validation of existing behavioral pain and distress scales for use in the procedural setting

Dianne Crellin, Thomas P Sullivan, Franz E Babl, Ronan O'Sullivan, Adrian Hutchinson



BACKGROUND: Assessing procedural pain and distress in young children is difficult. A number of behavior-based pain and distress scales exist which can be used in preverbal and early-verbal children, and these are validated in particular settings and to variable degrees. METHODS: We identified validated preverbal and early-verbal behavioral pain and distress scales and critically analysed the validation and reliability testing of these scales as well as their use in procedural pain and distress research. We analysed in detail six behavioral pain and distress scales: Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS), Faces Legs Activity Cry Consolability Pain Scale (FLACC), Toddler Pr..

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