Journal article

A Note on Permutation Tests for Genetic Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits When Variances Are Heterogeneous

Danielle Posthuma, Dirk-Jan de Koning, Conor Dolan, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher



The genetic dissection of quantitative traits, or endophenotypes, usually involves genetic linkage or association analysis in pedigrees and subsequent fine mapping association analysis in the population. The ascertainment procedure for quantitative traits often results in unequal variance of observations. For example, some phenotypes may be clinically measured whilst others are from self-reports, or phenotypes may be the average of multiple measures but with the number of measurements varying. The resulting heterogeneity of variance poses no real problem for analysis, as long as it is properly modelled and thereby taken into account. However, if statistical significance is determined using a..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by Netherlands Scientific Organization

Awarded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

Awarded by BBSRC

Funding Acknowledgements

Contract grant sponsor: Netherlands Scientific Organization; Contract grant numbers: NWO 480-05-003; NWO-VIDI-016-065-318; Contract grant sponsor: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; Contract grant sponsor: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).