Journal article

Species Distribution Models: Ecological Explanation and Prediction Across Space and Time

Jane Elith, John R Leathwick

ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY EVOLUTION AND SYSTEMATICS | ANNUAL REVIEWS | Published : 2009

Abstract

Species distribution models (SDMs) are numerical tools that combine observations of species occurrence or abundance with environmental estimates. They are used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict distributions across landscapes, sometimes requiring extrapolation in space and time. SDMs are now widely used across terrestrial, freshwater, and marine realms. Differences in methods between disciplines reflect both differences in species mobility and in “established use. Model realism and robustness is influenced by selection of relevant predictors and modeling method, consideration of scale, how the interplay between environmental and geographic factors is handled, and ..

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University of Melbourne Researchers

Grants

Awarded by New Zealand's Foundation for Research, Science and Technology


Awarded by ARC


Funding Acknowledgements

The preparation of this review was greatly assisted by generous and perceptive readers in Mike Austin, Mark Burgman, Yung En Chee, Simon Ferrier, Janet Franklin, Catherine Graham, and Andrea White. We have also benefitted enormously over the years from the insights of colleagues across the world who have challenged us, encouraged us, and helped us to learn. J.L.'s contribution was funded partly by New Zealand's Foundation for Research, Science and Technology under Contract C01 x 052, and J.E.'s by ARC grant DP0772671 and the Australian Center of Excellence for Risk Analysis.