Journal article

Retinal Arteriolar Changes: Intermediate Pathways Linking Early Life Exposures to Cardiovascular Disease?

Muhammad Bayu Sasongko, Tien Yin Wong, Jie Jin Wang



Low birth weight is an indicator of exposure to unfavorable fetal environment and has been associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. There is now growing evidence suggesting that alterations in the microcirculation associated with exposure to a suboptimal in utero environment play a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Proposed hypothetical mechanisms include: fetal circulatory redistribution, impaired synthesis of elastin, and endothelial dysfunction in response to antenatal and postnatal environment. More recent studies have shown associations of low birth weight with capillary rarefaction and narrowing retinal arteriolar cal..

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