Journal article

Potent Immunity to Low Doses of Influenza Vaccine by Probabilistic Guided Micro-Targeted Skin Delivery in a Mouse Model

Germain JP Fernando, Xianfeng Chen, Tarl W Prow, Michael L Crichton, Emily J Fairmaid, Michael S Roberts, Ian H Frazer, Lorena E Brown, Mark AF Kendall



BACKGROUND: Over 14 million people die each year from infectious diseases despite extensive vaccine use [1]. The needle and syringe--first invented in 1853--is still the primary delivery device, injecting liquid vaccine into muscle. Vaccines could be far more effective if they were precisely delivered into the narrow layer just beneath the skin surface that contains a much higher density of potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) essential to generate a protective immune response. We hypothesized that successful vaccination could be achieved this way with far lower antigen doses than required by the needle and syringe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To meet this objective, using a probabilit..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia)

Awarded by Australian Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) Grants ID# 569726 (MAFK, GJPF, LEB), ID# 456150 (MAFK), Australian Research Council Grant ID# DP077464 (MAFK, MSR) and the Queensland Smart State Scheme funded this research. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.