Journal article

Evolution of Linked Avirulence Effectors in Leptosphaeria maculans Is Affected by Genomic Environment and Exposure to Resistance Genes in Host Plants

Angela P Van de Wouw, Anton J Cozijnsen, James K Hane, Patrick C Brunner, Bruce A McDonald, Richard P Oliver, Barbara J Howlett

PLoS Pathogens | PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE | Published : 2010

Abstract

Brassica napus (canola) cultivars and isolates of the blackleg fungus, Leptosphaeria maculans interact in a 'gene for gene' manner whereby plant resistance (R) genes are complementary to pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes. Avirulence genes encode proteins that belong to a class of pathogen molecules known as effectors, which includes small secreted proteins that play a role in disease. In Australia in 2003 canola cultivars with the Rlm1 resistance gene suffered a breakdown of disease resistance, resulting in severe yield losses. This was associated with a large increase in the frequency of virulence alleles of the complementary avirulence gene, AvrLm1, in fungal populations. Surprisingly, the f..

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