Journal article

Emergence of a Globally Dominant IncHI1 Plasmid Type Associated with Multiple Drug Resistant Typhoid

Kathryn E Holt, Duy Phan Minh, Stephen Baker, Thanh Duy Pham, Vu Thieu Nga Tran, Satheesh Nair, A Keith Turner, Ciara Walsh, Seamus Fanning, Sinead Farrell-Ward, Shanta Dutta, Sam Kariuki, Francois-Xavier Weill, Julian Parkhill, Gordon Dougan, John Wain

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE | Published : 2011


Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains a serious global health concern. Since their emergence in the mid-1970s multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. Typhi now dominate drug sensitive equivalents in many regions. MDR in S. Typhi is almost exclusively conferred by self-transmissible IncHI1 plasmids carrying a suite of antimicrobial resistance genes. We identified over 300 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within conserved regions of the IncHI1 plasmid, and genotyped both plasmid and chromosomal SNPs in over 450 S. Typhi dating back to 1958. Prior to 1995, a variety of IncHI1 plasmid types were detected in distinct S. Typhi haplotypes. Highly similar plasmid..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Awarded by NHMRC of Australia

Funding Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust. KEH was supported by a Wellcome Trust Studentship and a Fellowship from the NHMRC of Australia (#628930). MDP was supported by a Wellcome Trust Studentship. SB is supported by an OAK Foundation Fellowship through Oxford University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.