Journal article

Host-defense peptides of Australian anurans. Part 2. Structure, activity, mechanism of action, and evolutionary significance

John H Bowie, Frances Separovic, Michael J Tyler



A previous review summarized research prior to 2004 carried out on the bioactive host-defense peptides contained in the skin secretions of Australian anurans (frogs and toads). This review covers the extension of that research from 2004 to 2012, and includes membrane-active peptides (including antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal and antiviral peptides) together with the mechanisms by which these peptides interact with model membranes, peptides that may be classified as "neuropeptides" (including smooth muscle active peptides, opioids and immunomodulators) and peptides which inhibit the formation of nitric oxide from neuronal nitric oxide synthase. The review discusses the outcome of cDNA s..

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University of Melbourne Researchers


Funding Acknowledgements

We thank the Australian Research Council for financing our research on anuran peptides, and for partially funding the NMR spectrometers, mass spectrometers and supercomputers used in this research. We thank our colleagues, the post-doctoral fellows and many graduate students who were involved with the projects carried out in Adelaide and/or Melbourne: their names are shown as authors of the publications listed in the reference section of this review. MJT thanks the many volunteers who assisted with the collection of live frogs throughout Australia.