Journal article

Absorption characteristics of epidural levobupivacaine with adrenaline and clonidine in children

George A Chalkiadis, Farah Abdullah, Andrew R Bjorksten, Alexander Clarke, Luis I Cortinez, Sonal Udayasiri, Brian J Anderson



AIM: To determine if the addition of adrenaline, clonidine, or their combination altered the pharmacokinetic profile of levobupivacaine administered via the caudal epidural route in children. METHODS: Children aged <18 years old scheduled to undergo sub-umbilical surgery were administered caudal levobupivacaine plain 2.5 mg · ml(-1) or with adjuvants adrenaline 5 mcg · ml(-1) or clonidine 2 mcg · ml(-1) or their combination. Covariate analysis included weight and postnatal age (PNA). Time-concentration profile analysis was undertaken using nonlinear mixed effects models. A one-compartment linear disposition model with first-order input and first-order elimination was used to describe the dat..

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