Absorption characteristics of epidural levobupivacaine with adrenaline and clonidine in children
George A Chalkiadis, Farah Abdullah, Andrew R Bjorksten, Alexander Clarke, Luis I Cortinez, Sonal Udayasiri, Brian J Anderson
PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA | WILEY-BLACKWELL | Published : 2013
AIM: To determine if the addition of adrenaline, clonidine, or their combination altered the pharmacokinetic profile of levobupivacaine administered via the caudal epidural route in children. METHODS: Children aged <18 years old scheduled to undergo sub-umbilical surgery were administered caudal levobupivacaine plain 2.5 mg · ml(-1) or with adjuvants adrenaline 5 mcg · ml(-1) or clonidine 2 mcg · ml(-1) or their combination. Covariate analysis included weight and postnatal age (PNA). Time-concentration profile analysis was undertaken using nonlinear mixed effects models. A one-compartment linear disposition model with first-order input and first-order elimination was used to describe the dat..View full abstract
This research was supported by the Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program. Cell-tech Chrioscience Limited, Cambridge, UK, sponsored two of the studies from which data were used for this analysis. The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Jerrold Lerman for providing raw data from reference (10).