Cigarette smoke worsens lung inflammation and impairs resolution of influenza infection in mice.
Rosa C Gualano, Michelle J Hansen, Ross Vlahos, Jessica E Jones, Ruth A Park-Jones, Georgia Deliyannis, Stephen J Turner, Karen A Duca, Gary P Anderson
Respiratory Research | BioMed Central Ltd | Published : 2008
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke has both pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure are linked to an increased incidence and severity of respiratory virus infections, but underlying mechanisms are not well defined. We hypothesized, based on prior gene expression profiling studies, that upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by short term smoke exposure would be protective against a subsequent influenza infection. METHODS: BALB/c mice were subjected to whole body smoke exposure with 9 cigarettes/day for 4 days. Mice were then infected with influenza A (H3N1, Mem71 strain), and analyzed 3 and 10 days later (d3, d10). These time points are..View full abstract
We thank Anna Romeo (BD BioSciences) and Alice Holloway (Dept. of Medicine, University of Melbourne) for advice on flow cytometry. We thank the following colleagues for technical and manuscript advice: Dr Vy Lam, Dr Patrick Reading, Dr Margot Anders and Dr Anne-Sophie Karlsson. The present address of Karen A. Duca is: Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The present address of Georgia Deliyannis is Pfizer Animal Health, Melbourne.This work was supported by the Commonwealth Government of Australia through the National Health & Medical Research Council and the CoOperative Research Centre program