Journal article

Artificial autonomic reflexes: using functional electrical stimulation to mimic bladder reflexes after injury or disease

JW Middleton, JR Keast

AUTONOMIC NEUROSCIENCE-BASIC & CLINICAL | ELSEVIER | Published : 2004

Abstract

Autonomic reflexes controlling bladder storage (continence) and emptying (micturition) involve spinal and supraspinal nerve pathways, with complex mechanisms coordinating smooth muscle activity of the lower urinary tract with voluntary muscle activity of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). These reflexes can be severely disrupted by various diseases and by neurotrauma, particularly spinal cord injury (SCI). Functional electrical stimulation (FES) refers to a group of techniques that involve application of low levels of electrical current to artificially induce or modify nerve activation or muscle contraction, in order to restore function, improve health or rectify physiological dysfunctio..

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University of Melbourne Researchers