The promise of N-acetylcysteine in neuropsychiatry
Michael Berk, Gin S Malhi, Laura J Gray, Olivia M Dean
TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES | ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON | Published : 2013
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) targets a diverse array of factors germane to the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including glutamatergic transmission, the antioxidant glutathione, neurotrophins, apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory pathways. This review summarises the areas where the mechanisms of action of NAC overlap with known pathophysiological elements, and offers a précis of current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including cocaine, cannabis, and smoking addictions, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, autism, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. There are positive trials of NAC in all these ..View full abstract
G.S.M. has received research support from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Organon, Pfizer, Servier, and Wyeth; has been a speaker for AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, Pfizer, Ranbaxy, Servier, and Wyeth; and has been a consultant for AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck, and Servier. M.B. has received research support from the Medical Benefits Fund of Australia, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Organon, Novartis, Mayne Pharma, and Servier; has been a speaker for AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithEline, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck, Merck, Pfizer, Sanofi Synthelabo, Servier, Solvay, and Wyeth; and has served as a consultant to AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck, and Servier. M.B. is a co-inventor on two provisional patents regarding the use of NAC and related compounds for psychiatric indications, assigned to the Mental Health Research Institute. L.J.G. has received grant support from the Rebecca L. Cooper Medical Research Foundation. O.M.D. has received grant support from the Brain and Behaviour Foundation, the Simons Autism Foundation, the Stanley Medical Research Institute, Lilly, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), and an Society for Bipolar and Depressive Disorders (ASBDD)/Servier grant.