Book Chapter

Stratified hydraulics

PG Baines

Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Volume One: Overview and Fundamentals | Published : 2012

Abstract

Stratified flows of this type occur in a variety of situations in the environment. They may occur in rivers where lower level fluid is more dense (colder or saltier) than upper levels, in estuaries where river flow encounters the ocean, in long stratified lakes where wind-driven seiches occur, in shallow straits and channels in the ocean such as at Gibraltar and the Bosphorus, and in deep ocean channels that control the flow of bottom waters. In some cases such as at Gibraltar and the Bosphorus, the flow may be approximated by two homogeneous layers that flow in opposite directions. These are known as exchange flows. This approximation may also give a useful description of the exchange flow ..

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University of Melbourne Researchers