Journal article

Conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles for Australian driving conditions. Part 2: Life cycle CO₂-e emissions

R Sharma, C Manzie, M Bessede, RH Crawford, MJ Brear

Transportation Research Part C - Emerging Technologies | Elsevier BV | Published : 2013


This paper is the second of a two part study which quantifies the economic and greenhouse performance of conventional, hybrid and fully electric passenger vehicles operating in Australian driving conditions. This second study focuses on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Two vehicle sizes are considered, Class-B and Class-E, which bracket the large majority of passenger vehicles on Australian roads.Using vehicle simulation models developed in the first study, the trade-offs between the ability of increasingly electric powertrains in curtailing the tailpipe emissions and the corresponding rise in the embedded vehicle emissions have been evaluated. The sensitivity of the life cycle emiss..

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Awarded by Australian Research Council

Funding Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Advanced Centre for Automotive Research and Testing (, the Melbourne Energy Institute and Australian Research Council Grants FT0991117 and FT100100538 for supporting this research.